The comic section of the newspaper has been a home to everything from talking cats to blundering army privates, to trouble making kids. There’s been strips about the work place, strips about a large family, and slightly plump woman and her struggles to find love. We love these strips because they provide a release from the stress of everyday life with their short situational humor.
Perhaps that is why the newspaper includes the “funny page section” we would receive nothing but news about war, scandal, corruption and violence. It would be a depressing world without them. However, one “children’s comic strip” over all the rest has balanced the humor with a sense of pathos, pain and longing. Only one strip has featured a character who tries hard despite his long suffering tendencies that make the biblical Job look positively cheery. That character, is none other than Charlie Brown.
Charlie Brown is in many ways a semi-biographical figure for creator Charles M. Schulz. Brown, like his creator had a father who was a barber. Further there are plenty of subtle details, from the seasonal change, to the mention of specific streets in Saint Paul that indicate that Charlie Brown, to the plethora of German and Dutch surnames for the cast of characters, is as much from Minnesota as his creator. Schulz and Brown also both owned beagles. Most importantly, Schulz was also plagued by struggles with inferiority and melancholy.
As Schulz recalled,
“When I was small, I believed that my face was so bland that people would not recognize me if they saw me some place other than where they normally would. I was sincerely surprised if I happened to be in the downtown area of St. Paul, shopping with my mother, and we would bump into a fellow student at school, or a teacher, and they recognized me. I thought that my ordinary appearance was a perfect disguise. It was this weird kind of thinking that prompted Charlie Brown’s round, ordinary face.”
This sense of melancholy, anxiety, and inferiority is best seen in one of Charlie Brown’s many thoughts regarding his illusive love, The Little Red-Haired Girl, which was not only in the strip but in the he retails to Lucy at her psychiatric booth in The Peanuts Movie,
“She’s something and I’m nothing. If I were something, and she were nothing, I could talk to her. Or if she were something, and I were something, then I could also talk to her. Or if she were nothing, and I were nothing, then I could also talk to her. But she’s something, and I’m nothing, so I can’t talk to her.”
Then, just when he might build the confidence to go up and talk to her, he quickly talks himself down, wanting things to stay safe, and avoid getting hurt by yet another person. As he laments,
“I think I’ll go introduce myself to that little red haired girl. I think I’ll go introduce myself, and then ask her to come over and sit next to me. I think I’ll ask her to sit next to me here, and then I think I’ll tell her how much I always admired her…I think I’ll flap my arms, and fly to the moon.”
She is the unattainable to Charlie, and thus It is part of the reason he is over-joyed to find that she nibbles on her pencil as in his book it means she’s human, like he is. Charlie firmly believes that The Little Red-Haired girl, and for that matter, all of his friends don’t like him. Thus he is always surprised when someone, like Linus, Schroeder, or Marcie actually show him any kindness.
As James C. Kaufman noted in “The Charlie Brown Theory of Personality” from Psychology Today,
“Charlie Brown is a model neurotic. He is prone to depression and anxiety and paralyzing fits of over-analysis. Constantly worrying if he is liked or respected, he has a perpetual, usually dormant crush on the little redheaded girl, taking small joys in her foibles (like biting her pencil) that may make her more attainable. He is noted for his inability to fly a kite.”
This is to say nothing of his feelings at Christmas time. As we see in A Charlie Brown Christmas, Charlie faithfully goes out to the mailbox every day in hopes of finding a card or a present only to find his box empty. Charlie feels dejected, in perhaps one of the first instances in a children’s Christmas special, and tells Linus,
“I think there must be something wrong with me, Linus. Christmas is coming but I’m not happy. I don’t feel the way I’m suppose to feel. I like getting presents and sending Christmas cards and decorating trees and all that. But I’m still not happy. I always end up feeling depressed.”
Much of his struggles with rejection, dejection and inferiority, stem in no small part from his perpetual loser streak. Aside from Peter Parker in Spider-Man no comic book character suffered more losses or humiliations then Charlie Brown. Charlie’s baseball team can’t win a game, he struggles in school, he can’t kick that football, his dog can’t remember his name, his sister doesn’t seem to listen, Lucy bullies him, and at some point in his history 99% of the gang has laughed at him.
As creator Charles M. Schulz noted, in a quote featured in “Good Grief: Lessons from Charlie Brown” from Washington Parent,
“Charlie Brown must be one who suffers, because he’s a caricature of the average person. Most of us are much more acquainted with losing than winning. Winning is great, but it isn’t funny.”
Furthermore, it establishes a level of realism in Charlie Brown that other comic strips, and even children’s literature may lack. CS Lewis addressed this in his essay on “Three Ways of Writing for Children” in regards to fantasy literature and how it was actually not harmful to children, saying,
“It is accused of giving children a false impression of the world they live in, but I think no literature that children could read gives them less of a false impression. I think what profess to be realistic stories for children are far more likely to deceive them. I never expected the real world to be like the fairy tales. I think that I did expect school to be like the school stories. The fantasies did not deceive me: the school stories did. All stories in which children have adventures and successes which are possible, in the sense that they do not break the laws of nature, but almost infinitely improbable, are in more danger than the fairy tales of raising false expectations.”
Charlie Brown, in contrast to other “realistic” characters, does not raise up any false expectations. He sits alone at lunch, and we think back to the times where we sat alone. Charlie Brown losing a game reminds us of the times we lost a game. Charlie Brown can’t talk to his crush, and we see ourselves struggling to form the words to tell that special someone how we feel. Charlie Brown goes through the same things we do as children and in many ways, prepares future generations for a harsh reality: you can’t always win. This something that makes Charlie Brown one of those characters who is truly all of us, and yet at the same time none of us. As David Michaelis noted in “The Life and Times of Charles M. Schulz”, featured in The Complete Peanuts Volume 1,
“This was something new in the newspaper comic strip. At mid-century the comics were dominated by action and adventure, vaudeville and melodrama, slapstick and gags. Schulz dared to use his own quirks — a lifelong sense of alienation, insecurity and inferiority — to draw the real feelings of his life and time. He brought a spare pen line, Jack Benny timing and a subtle sense of humor to taboo themes such as faith, intolerance, depression, loneliness, cruelty and despair. His characters were contemplative. They spoke with simplicity and force. They made smart observations about literature, art, classical music, theology, medicine, psychiatry, sports and the law.”
Further, almost a century before we knew about children and mental health, Charlie Brown suffered from a near crippling anxiety disorder. In one strip, dated October 30, 1969, we see Charlie Brown lying awake in bed late at night saying to himself,
“Sometimes I lie awake knowing I’m going to have a bad day, and sure enough, I have a bad day…sometimes I wake up thinking I’m going to have a good day, but it always turns out to be a bad day…how come I never wake up thinking I’m going to have a good day and then really have a good day? Or how come I never waking up thinking I’m going to have a bad day, and then have a good day?…My stomach hurts….”
When we first met Charlie Brown in the comics, he is not the perpetual loser that we all know and love. Nor is he plagued by doubts and insecurity. In fact, Charlie is more of a trouble making little trickster, taking delight in puling practical jokes on his friends. For example in one strip, dated July 6, 1952, we see Charlie Brown gather Schroeder, Lucy, Snoopy, and Patty to get a group picture, even getting the whole gang to dress up. He holds up the camera, then right when he presses the button, out pops a Jack in the Box. The rest of the gang is angry and chases Charlie Brown down the street.
Charlie gleefully states, “Oh, it’s risky, but it keeps me young!”
Other times he seems to say or do things that offend his friends. In a strip from May 15, 1952, Charlie moans how no one loves him to Patty and Violet, and the two girls try to comfort him and say that they love him. Charlie responds to their declaration by saying, that nobody important loves him. The two girls chase him with the bewildered blockhead admitting that he always seems to say the wrong thing. Later in a strip Charlie comes up to Snoopy, plays with one of his ears, and asks him “kind of warm out today for earmuffs, isn’t it?” Snoopy leaves in a huff and feeling indigent over the insult.
There isn’t much in those early stages to separate him from other comic strip characters as Bill Watterson’s Calvin of Calvin and Hobbes, Bill Amend’s Jason Fox from Fox Trot, Hank Ketcham’s Dennis the Menace, Roy the Rooster from Jim Davis’ US Acres, or even Bart Simpson from The Simpsons. Even one of America’s greatest novelists and humorists, Mark Twain, perfected the trope with Tom Sawyer and Huck Finn. One could easily see early Charlie Brown tricking Linus, Shermy and Schroeder into painting a fence by telling them it is the greatest thing in the world, or faking his own death and showing up at his funeral. Any writer can create a trickster, what Schulz would come up with, however, would be something else very differently.
As Twain himself observed in his autobiography,
“We think boys are rude, unsensitive animals but it is not so in all cases. Each boy has one or two sensitive spots, and if you can find out where they are located you have only to touch them and you can scorch him as with fire.”
In fact if anything, even back then Charlie’s sensitive spot was all to evident: his heart. In another early strip, dated, we see him run up to kick over a tower of blocks that Lucy had been working on. The little girl covers her eyes and moans “oh, no over and over” only for Charlie to relent and admit that he doesn’t have the heart. Later in a strip from May 31st of 1952, Patty sees him riding his tricycle and demands he hand it over. Charlie says,
“But it’s MY tricycle! I’ve been looking forward to riding it…last night when I went to bed, I could hardly wait for morning to come so I could ride it…that’s the way I am, though. I like to get out in the sunshine and peddle around going up one street and down another, and…”
In the next panel we see him sighing as he gave the tricycle over to Patty who is now riding it down the sidewalk. Some might see this as testimony to Charlie’s wishy-washy personality, his willingness to give in to his friends and do what they ask, all because deep down he wants so much to be liked. However, others see something different. While Charlie is certainly wishy-washy, at least based on the comments of some of his so-called friends, Charlie, is generous to a fault, willing t give anything he can to the people he cares for.
In a strip from April 15, 1953, Charlie Brown offers Lucy a caramel. Lucy reaches in the bag and takes every last piece. As she walks away, her hands full of candy, Charlie calls to her,
“Hey, wait a minute! Don’t you think you’d better have a sack to carry those in?”
Charlie, in those moments is then the living embodiment of what Jesus spoke of in the Sermon on the Mount in Matthew Chapter 5 verses 38-42,
“You have heard that it was said, ‘Eye for eye, and tooth for tooth.’ But I tell you, do not resist an evil person. If anyone slaps you on the right cheek, turn to them the other cheek also. And if anyone wants to sue you and take your shirt, hand over your coat as well. If anyone forces you to go one mile, go with them two miles. Give to the one who asks you, and do not turn away from the one who wants to borrow from you.”
This is why he seems to always give in to Lucy and try to kick that football. Many times, he’ll even initially refuse, but Lucy will always pull some kind of trick out of her sleeve, to lure Charlie by playing towards his kind, trusting and giving heart. Most notably, in It’s the Great Pumpkin, Charlie Brown she makes him a solemn promise, holding out a signed document that says she will not pull the football away from him. Charlie, looking at the paper says,
“It *is* signed. It’s a signed document. I guess if you have a signed document in your possession, you can’t go wrong. This year I’m really going to kick that football.”
She pulls the ball away, again, claiming a technicality due to the document never being notarized, and Charlie Brown lands on flat on his back yet again. This mentality is part of how he always ends up in over his head. In It’s the Great Pumpkin, Charlie Brown, all Lucy and Violet need to do to get him to do their bidding is flatter his ego. As Charlie is running around playing a game, they tell him that they think he would need him to model for them, even saying he would be a perfect model. They have him sit on a chair and turn him around only to draw the face for a Jack-O-Lantern on the back of his head with a marker.
In A Charlie Brown Christmas after in confiding in Lucy that he is feeling depressed at Christmas time, and desperately wants to feel that Christmas spirit, Lucy suggest that he needs involvement and ropes him into directing their Christmas pageant, this is despite the fact that Charlie has had no experience directing anything prior to this. Thus, no one seems to respect or listen to him during rehearsal and it all goes down hill.
Later in A Charlie Brown Thanksgiving, Charlie had plans that day to just go over to his grandmother’s house for Thanksgiving dinner. That is until Peppermint Patty calls and insists that Charlie serve a full dinner for herself, Marcie and Franklin. Charlie tries to decline, but Patty won’t allow him to get a word in edge wise.
Unlike directing the play, Charlie can at least admit it is a bad idea for him to try and serve a Thanksgiving dinner, as he tells Linus,
“I can’t cook a Thanksgiving dinner. All I can make is cold cereal and maybe toast.”
Thus, the dinner Charlie puts together with the aid of Linus and Snoopy ends up being toast, popcorn, pretzel sticks and jelly beans, the very kind of things a typical child would serve for a meal that they could make with limited assistance or supervision. It almost ends in disaster, but at the same time, Charlie wouldn’t do it if his friends hadn’t asked.
Charlie Brown is always willing to do whatever he can to help his friends out , even if they haven’t always done anything to deserve it. This is best seen in the story arc from the comics that later inspired the special Charlie Brown’s All-Stars. In the special, Charlie Brown’s team is offered sponsor ship into the organized Little League, complete with uniforms. However, there is a catch, as Charlie soon discovers. The tentative sponsor won’t give them the uniforms unless Charlie Brown cuts Snoopy and the girls from his team.
Charlie Brown doesn’t bother to give the matter a second thought, as he tells the sponsor, Mr. Hennesey,
“Yes, we do have a girl or two on the team. But… But…Oh, I couldn’t do that, Mr. Hennessey…they’re my team. I couldn’t tell the girls and Snoopy they couldn’t be on the team. Oh, you mean the league won’t accept the girls or a dog on a team. But, Mr. Hennessey, they’re my friends and he’s my faithful dog. Well, I understand, Mr. Hennessey. I know it isn’t your fault. Rules are rules. I guess we’ll have to do without uniforms and being in a real league. Thanks anyway.”
Naturally, when the rest of his team learns there will be no uniforms or league sponsorship they are angry at Charlie for seemingly failing them once again. That is until they learned that he gave it all up for them. That leads them to deciding to do something nice for Charlie, making him a jersey that says “manager”. His team finally acknowledges that despite Charlie’s flaws as a manager and a pitcher that he very much is a hero.
As Christopher Caldwell, noted in “Against Snoopy”, in which he critiqued how Schulz became more of a brand in the waning years, and yet praised much of the early work through the 60’s and 70’s,
“What makes Charlie Brown such a rich character is that he’s not purely a loser. The self-loathing that causes him so much anguish is decidedly not self-effacement. Charlie Brown is optimistic enough to think he can earn a sense of self-worth, and his willingness to do so by exposing himself to fresh humiliations is the dramatic engine that drives the strip. The greatest of Charlie Brown’s virtues is his resilience, which is to say his courage. Charlie Brown is ambitious. He manages the baseball team. He’s the pitcher, not a scrub. He may be a loser, but he’s, strangely, a leader at the same time. This makes his mood swings truly bipolar in their magnificence: he vacillates not between being kinda happy and kinda unhappy, but between being a “hero” and being a “goat.” ….A hair’s breadth separates the state of grace from the state of ostracism and Charlie Brown always winds up on the wrong side of that hair’s breadth. He drops a pop-up to cost his team its only win of the season. He gets thrown out trying to steal home in the bottom of the ninth. But at least he’s in the arena.”
In The Peanuts Movie, we see this quality take center stage. Charlie spends weeks practicing a magic act with Snoopy, certain that he is going to impress the little Red-haired girl .But then, when Sally’s rodeo act is a bust, Charlie puts on a cow costume and helps her out, even if he ends up being a joke to the entire school. He could tell that his sister was disappointed and already everyone was starting to laugh at her, and having been the butt of everyone’s jokes himself, he couldn’t have that happen to his baby sister.
Later, in that same film, we see his honest and integrity kick in, when he learns that thanks to a mix up, he did not score highest on a standardized test. Charlie informs the school and the award goes to another student, Peppermint Patty. Prior to this, he had been finally receiving praise from his peers, even to the pint that the followed him around and started wearing the same shirt. Charlie was finally a winner, and it was giving him the confidence he needed. However, when Charlie learned the truth, he still told the teacher of the error allowing the right person to receive the honor that he knew he didn’t deserve.
Charlie as much as he would love to be a winner would rather be a kind, and noble person with a good heart. Yet despite any setbacks he faces, Charlie keeps on trying. This indomitable, never say die attitude of his is something that even his friends have a hard time not respecting. Peppermint Patty even admits as much to Lucy in the space station episode of This is America Charlie Brown. Linus is having a dream while working on a report on the then future ISS, and dreams about what it would be like if he and his friends were on board the station. Towards the end of the special Peppermint Patty, Lucy and Sally are looking at the Earth from the station and preparing to return home. Patty tells Lucy as they are talking about what will become of the Earth and humanity,
“Well, you know, he doesn’t always do the right thing, and I can still strike him out on three pitches…Well, I gotta hand it to him. He keeps on trying. He doesn’t give up. He just keeps plugging away. So I guess that’s what we all have to do back on earth.”
It’s why deep down everyone around him does like him. Linus wouldn’t hang out with him, and Schroeder wouldn’t frequently stand up for him if they didn’t believe there was something worthwhile about Charlie. Likewise Peppermint Patty and Marcie wouldn’t fawn over the round-headed kid with marginal athletic skills if they didn’t see something admirable about him. Lucy wouldn’t ask him if he thought she was beautiful, or take it to heart when he calls her in one strip an “un-cutie”. Deep down, they all like him and admire him for the person he is. More importantly: they all wish they could have the same strength of character that he has to keep plugging away.
Emily P. Freeman noted in the devotional book Simply Tuesday,
“It’s one thing to create a hero who is lovable, admirable and dashing. What isn’t so easy is to create a layered character ( especially a cartoon one) who is chronically embarrassed, rejected, and made to look like a fool and still have him come out as a hero. But that’s what Charles Schulz did with Charlie Brown. We relate to him in his embarrassment and chuckle at his consistent misfortune… But the heroic part of Charlie Brown is that the kid never gives up… Charlie Brown doesn’t ride in on a white horse or save the world in a blue cape, but he endures in the midst of everyday difficult and that’s the kind of hope most of us need….”
And indeed, while Charlie may not leap tall buildings in a single bound, or swing from a web over the streets of New York, he is perhaps one of the greatest heroes to ever grace the comic strip pages. He not only relates to our own struggles, but inspires us to be better people, and to hold on to our goals, no matter how hard they unattainable they may seem or how many times life seems to pull them away from us.
Chris Martino the director of The Peanuts movie summed it up best in an article from The Washington Post that looked at the eight year development of The Peanuts Movie,
“Charlie Brown is that guy who, in the face of repeated failure, picks himself back up and tries again. That’s no small task. I have kids who aspire to be something big and great. … a star football player or on Broadway. I think what Charlie Brown is — what I hope to show in this film — is the everyday qualities of perseverance…to pick yourself back up with a positive attitude — that’s every bit as heroic … as having a star on the Walk of Fame or being a star on Broadway.”
Allen, Henry. “The Cartoonist Who Drew From Experience” The Washington Post. February 14, 2000. Archived. Last Accessed November 17, 2016.
Beach, Lisa A. “Good Grief! Lessons from Charlie Brown” Washington Parent. October 2016. Archived: Last Accessed: November 17, 2016.
Caldwell, Christopher “Against Snoopy” The New York Press. January 4, 2000. Archived. Last accessed November 17, 2016.
Cavna, Michael “You’re a Good Plan, Charlie Brown: A peek into the meticulous vision behind 2015’s ‘Peanuts’ feature film” The Washington Post April 7, 2014. Archived. Last Accessed November, 17, 2016.
Freeman, Emily P. Simply Tuesday: Small-Moment Living in a Fast-Moving World. Pg. 148. 2015. Revell. Grand Rapids, MI.
TV SHOW: Jaimes, Sam. “The NASA Space Station” This is America, Charlie Brown. Starring Erin Chase, Brandon Stewart, Erica Gayle, Brittany Thornton, Grant Gelt, Jason Mendelson, Frank Welker, Greg Berger, and Bill Melendez. Charles M. Schulz and Bill Melendez (writers.) 1989.
Kaufman, James C. “The Charlie Brown Theory of Personality” Psychology Today. March 3, 2010. Archived. Last Accessed: November 17, 2016.
Lewis, CS “On Three Ways of Writing for Children.” On Stories: And Other Essays on Literature. Pg. 37. 1987. Harcourt, Inc. Orlando, Fl.
FILM: Martino, Chris (Dir.)The Peanuts Movie Starring Noah Schnapp, Alex Garfin, Hadley Belle Miller, Mariel Sheets, Noah Johnston, Venus Omega Schultheis, Madisyn Shipman, AJ Teece, Marelik “Mar Mar” Walker, William Wunsch, Rebecca Bloom, Anastasia Bredikhina, Francesca Angelucci Capaldi, Troy “ Trombone Shorty” Andrews, Kristin Chenoweth, and Bill Melendez. Bryan Schulz, Craig Schulz, and Cornelius Uliano (writers). Blue Sky Studios/20th Century Fox. 2015.
TV SPECIAL: Melendez, Bill. A Charlie Brown Christmas. Starring Peter Robbins, Chris Shea, Tracy Stratford, Kathy Steinberg, Chris Doran, Karen Mendelson, Geoffrey Orstein, Sally Dryer, Anne Altieri, and Bill Melendez. Charles M. Schulz (Writer.)Lee Mendelson/Bill Melendez Productions/United Features Syndicate. 1965.
TV SPECIAL: Melendez, Bill. Charlie Brown’s All-Star’s. Starring Peter Robbins, Sally Dryer, Christopher Shea, Ann Altieri, Glenn Mendelson, Kathy Steinberg, Geoffrey Ornstein, Lynn Vanderlip, Karen Mendleson, Gail DeFaria and Bill Melendez. Charles M. Schulz (Writer.)Lee Mendelson/Bill Melendez Productions/United Features Syndicate. 1966.
TV SPECIAL: Melendez, Bill. It’s the Great Pumpkin, Charlie Brown. Starring Peter Robbins, Chris Shea, Tracy Stratford, Kathy Steinberg, Chris Doran, Gabrielle DeFaria Ritter, Lisa DeFaria, Sally Dryer, Anne Altieri, and Bill Melendez. Charles M. Schulz (Writer.)Lee Mendelson/Bill Melendez Productions/United Features Syndicate. 1966.
TV SPECIAL: Melendez, Bill and Phil Roman. A Charlie Brown Thanksgiving. Starring Todd Barbee, Stephen Shea, Hilary Momberger, Robin Kohn, Christopher DeFaria, Jmmy Ahrens, Robin Reed, and Bill Melendez. Charles M. Schulz (Writer.)Lee Mendelson/Bill Melendez Productions/United Features Syndicate. 1973
Michaelis, David “The Life and Times of Charles Schulz”. The Complete Peanuts Vol. 1: 1950–1952. 2004.Fantagraphics. Seattle, WA.
Matthew. The NIV Study Bible. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Pub. House, 1995.
Schulz, Charles M. “Peanuts.” The Complete Peanuts: 1965-1966. Vol. 8. 2007. Fantagraphics. Seattle, Wa.Seattle: Fantagraphics.
Schulz, Charles M. “Peanuts.” GoComics.com. This comic’s first appearance: 15th April, 1952 Peanuts Worldwide,LLC.Web. 16 Nov. 2016.
Schulz, Charles M. “Peanuts.” GoComics.com. This comic’s first appearance: 9th May, 1952 Peanuts Worldwide,LLC.Web. 16 Nov. 2016
Schulz, Charles M. “Peanuts.” GoComics.com. This comic’s first appearance: 31st May, 1952 Peanuts Worldwide,LLC.Web. 16 Nov. 2016.
Schulz, Charles M. “Peanuts.” GoComics.com. This comic’s first appearance:6th July, 1952 Peanuts Worldwide,LLC.Web. 16 Nov. 2016.
Schulz, Charles M. “Peanuts.” GoComics.com. This comic’s first appearance: 15th April, 1953. Peanuts Worldwide,LLC.Web. 16 Nov. 2016.
Schulz, Charles M. “Peanuts.” Peanuts.com. Peanuts Worldwide,LLC Appeared on: 27th Oct 2016 / This comic’s first appearance: 30th Oct, 1969. Web. 16 Nov. 2016.
Twain, Mark Autobiography of Mark Twain, Volume 1: The Complete and Authoritative Edition. pg. 156.Harriet Elinor Smith ed. 2010. University of California Press. Berkley. Los Angeles, CA.
1973. Lee Mendelson/Bill Melendez Productions/United Features Syndicate.
This blog is not authorized, endorsed, approved or affiliated with Lee Mendelson/Bill Melendez Productions/United Features Syndicate, Paramount Pictures, Warner Bros. 20th Century Fox, Blue Sky Studios, Peanuts Worldwide or any other parties involved in the creation, development, and ownership of the Peanuts characters. The views and opinions in this blog are strictly those of it’s author, and do not reflect the views or ownership of the respected owners of Peanuts.