The earliest prefigures of the “robot” occur in The Illiad. In some translations of Homer’s text, he is said to have been assisted in crafting the fabled armor of Achilles by golden mechanical women. While further stories like Galatae from the Greek myths, the Golem of Prague from Jewish folklore, and Mary Shelly’s Frankenstein featured artificial humans, and The Wizard of Oz books featured the mechanical man “Tick-Tock”, the term “robot” was not used until Czech playwright Karel Capek’s play Rossum’s Universal Robot in 1921. From that play these mechanical creatures evolved under the pen of such luminaries as Arthur C. Clarke and Isaac Asimov. With the development of film, robots would inevitably have their celluloid debut.
Ever since those early days of the silent films there have been no shortage of popular robots. Mention the word robot to someone and they will no doubt think of any number of popular characters from film and television ranging from sci-fi icons like Maria in Fritz Lang’s 1927 classic Metropolis, to Robby the Robot in The Forbidden Planet, Gort in The Day The Earth Stood Still, and Lt. Cm. Data in Star Trek: The Next Generation, to superheroes like Robocop, to lovable helpers like in the Johnny 5 in Short Circuit, Rosie the robot maid in the Jetson’s cartoons, and Wall-E in the movie of the same name, to more sinister apparitions like the killer robots in the Terminator films, these metallic creatures are a huge part of our cultural zeitgeist. However, at the very front of the list of popular robots is usually the lovable duo C-3P0 and R2-D2, or as their human friends call them “Threepio and Artoo”.
As Cynthia Braezeal and Robert Naeye note in the chapter “Human-Robot Relationships” from the book Star Wars: Where Science Meets the imagination.
“Unlike HAL…who had an eerie, arrogant disembodied sort of presence, R2-D2 and C-3P0 had likeable personalities and risked “life” and limb to help people whom they genuinely cared about. They weren’t just machines doing work for humans .They had rich personalities and emotions. They related to people; they had friendships with people….They’re both intriguing characters and they both have wonderful emotional arcs, so I can’t say I’m a fan of one over the other. If it was just R2-D2 without C-3P0, you wouldn’t appreciate them as much as you do when they’re together and interacting. They’re the Abbot and Costello –or perhaps the Laurel and Hardy-of the Star Wars Saga.”
Indeed prior to Artoo and Threepio, robots in film didn’t have much in terms of personality. Gort may have protected Carpenter in Day the Earth Stood still but he was an ominous creature. Robbie the Robot in The Forbidden Planet was more like a high-tech Calliban to Dr. Morbius’ Prospero, carrying out his master’s every whim. The Dalek’s of Dr. Who have one purpose: exterminate. Viewers would have never expected those robots to interact with any of their “masters” in the way that 3P0 and R2 did, and yet after them, everything changed. Aside from Isaac Asimov’s fiction like Bicentennial Man, and the robot in Lost in Space robots had no real desire to fully interact with humanity before Threepio and Artoo. They were all about running programs.
In their own special way, Threepio and Artoo supply some much needed comic relief from what would be an otherwise dour film series. As per George Lucas’ insistence, Threepio looks like a male version of Maria from Metropolis, while Artoo looks like a rolling trashcan. The two of them are the classic mismatched comedic duo, one short and stalk, the other tall and thin. One fussy, the other grungy. Threepio and Artoo are like Oscar and Felix from The Odd Couple wrapped up shiny metal casings. They argue, they bicker, and at times they don’t seem to like each other.
Between the two of them Artoo is more suited for adventures than Threepio. The smaller droid can act as a navigator, a repair man, a messenger, an external hard drive, and a computer hacker to name some of his many functions. Threepio however is better suited to living in a palatial residence, serving a master, and translating or them, acting more like a butler. In fact the only time in the saga Threepio seems at ease is when he is in Padmé’s service during The Clone Wars TV show and Revenge of the Sith. Artoo is ready for any and everything where as Threepio quickly panics. Threepio is programmed for etiquette and protocol, a function Uncle Owen admits he has no need for on Tatooine when he buys him from the Jawas in Star Wars.
This leads to a lot of Threepio’s frustrations with Artoo. As Anthony Daniels notes in the introduction to the book Star Wars: Where Science Meets the imagination.
“Threepio would wise to remind you that Artoo is only an astromech: a robot that may have the mechanical genius of a motorized Swiss Army Knife, but the sensitivity of a drill sergeant, whereas Threepio firmly grasps the esoteric skills of protocol and etiquette, so essential for smooth functioning of society on our planet-though utterly useless in a hectic space adventure played out on Tatooine…Unlike the clearly utilitarian Artoo, See-Threepio is a humanoid, socialized robot with extraordinary skills, most of which are ignored by the humans he so diligently tries to serve. The design and manufacture of any appliance reflects its purpose. Imagine the frustration level of a machine whose function is repeatedly denied. No wonder Threepio seems a little tense: his understanding linguistic abilities are regularly taken for granted. Capable of advanced mathematics, he must endure the routine dismissal of his numeric prognostications by the ill-mannered Han Solo, a human who has no respect whatsoever for the golden droid, a droid that, amazingly, appears to have a soul, which occasionally peers through the mayhem of the Star Wars saga.”
As Threepio tells Artoo in Star Wars after they escape from the hands of the Imperials in Star Wars as they travel through the desert planet of Tatooine,
“I’ve just about had enough of you. Go that way. You’ll be malfunctioning within a day, you nearsighted scrap pile…And don’t let me catch you following me, begging for help, because you won’t get it.”
Artoo is also the more brave of the two, ready to charge in head long to anything where as Threepio prefers to stay back where its’ safe, until proven otherwise. However, of the two droids, Threepio tends to frustrate his users and fans more. Clive Thomson noted in the article “Why Do We Love R2-D2 and not C-3P0” in the May 2014 issue of Smithsonian Magazine,
“To understand R2-D2, you have to wrap your mind around a theory called “the uncanny valley.”…The concept was first posed in 1970 by the Japanese roboticist Masahiro Mori. He’d noticed that as robots grow more realistic, people’s attitudes toward them change. When a robot is toylike and capable of only simple, humanlike gestures, we find it cute. If it starts looking and acting a bit more human, we find it even more endearing. But if it gets too human—as with, say, a rubbery prosthetic hand—we suddenly shift allegiance. We find it creepy. Our emotional response plunges into what Mori called the uncanny valley…Why would overly realistic robots so unsettle us? When they become nearly human, we start focusing on the things that are missing. We notice that the arms don’t quite move as smoothly as a real human’s, or the skin tone isn’t quite right. It stops looking like a person and starts looking like a zombie. Angela Tinwell, a professor specializing in video game design at the University of Bolton in Britain, suspects we unconsciously detect sociopathy or disease…Mori saw a way out of this conundrum. The most engaging robot would be one that suggested human behavior, but didn’t try to perfectly emulate it. Our imaginations would do the rest, endowing it with a personality that we could relate to…In essence, Mori perfectly predicted the appeal of R2-D2.”
When Threepio complains or whines or begs for mercy we know exactly what he is saying. Artoo however speaks only in an assortment of beeps, that give off a slight hint at what he may be saying, and it’s only reactions from Luke or Threepio that give us a hint at what they may be. Both droids care about pleasing their respective masters, Threepio even worrying if he upsets Luke to the point of selling him to Jabba in Return of the Jedi. The only hint from Artoo comes when he asks Threepio if Luke likes him, only to get a stern no from the golden droid and a snarky comment about how Threepio doesn’t like him either, leaving the smaller droid whimpering like a sad puppy.
Yet, as is often the case, despite their disagreements they are still the best of friends. When the two are reunited later on in the Jawa Sandcrawler, Threepio is delighted to see his old friend. Before Artoo leaves with Luke for the Battle of Yavin, Threepio not only tells Artoo to take care of Luke, but to take care of himself as his life would be boring without him. Finally when Artoo is severely damaged by Darth Vader during that fateful attack run and Threepio sees what condition his old friend is in, he says,
“You must repair him! … Sir, if any of my circuits or gears will help, I’ll gladly donate them! ”
Not that he wants Artoo to know any of this. In the first episode from the classic Droids cartoon from the 1980s, Threepio fears his friend has been disintegrated in acid. He gives his friend a heartfelt eulogy calling him a miracle of modern technology and a true prince among droids as well as his dear friend. However when the plucky little Artoo unit emerges from the scrap pile alive, he quickly tries to deny it, saying,
“Artoo Detoo?!… Miracle of modern technology? I said no such thing. Prince of the scrap pile, if you don’t get moving.”
Threepio and Artoo were originally envisioned as the narrators of the Star Wars Saga. This was meant as a nod to Kurasawa’s the The Hidden Fortress, in which two squabbling peasants witnessed the whole story. Appropriately for the Star Wars: In Concert tour from 2009 that retold the entire story of Star Wars through music and film clips from all six movies, plus laser lights and pyrotechnics, Anthony Daniels was the narrator for the event. The new series of Lego Droid tales features Threepio retelling the events of the earlier movies, and Threepio and Artoo ere even the hosts of a series of featurettes on the final VHS releases of the original Star Wars trilogy that helped to conect the dots between the first to Prequels and the Original Trilogy in anticipation for Revenge of the Sith.
While the two droids did not narrate the events as planned, they were still prevalent in the story, witnessing and recording all that happened, especially Artoo. The little droid was manufactured on Naboo and was the only Artoo unit to survive the attempt to repair Queen Amidala’s star ship when it was heavily damaged during their escape from the Trade Federation in The Phantom Menace.
Threepio however, was cobbled together from spare parts by Anakin Skywalker on Tatooine to help his mother out. During Padmé and Qui-Gon’s time on Tatooine, Threepio and Artoo first made their acquaintance, the little astro-droid even pointing out that Threepio was “naked.” They even helped Anakin finish his pod in time for the race. When Anakin left Tatooine Threepio stayed with Shmi, while Artoo continue on their adventure, even helping Anakin in the battle against the Trade Federation.
Later, in Attack of the Clones when Anakin, Padmé and Artoo returned to Tatooine to inquire about Anakin’s mother they were reunited with the protocol droid, now residing with Anakin’s step –father and step-brother, Cliegg and Owen Lars. When they left Tatooine following her funeral, Threepio went with them, accidently getting his head knocked off and put on a Battle droid body until Jedi Kit Fisto helped him out, allowing Artoo to fix his friend.
Threepio would enter the service of Padmé, receiving a set of shiny golden plating in order to be more presentable. Meanwhile when Anakin became a Jedi Knight in order to congratulate him , Padmé gave Artoo to Anakin, and the little astromech accompanied him on his many adventures during the wars, up until Anakin became Vader. After that, they were taken by Bail Organa and placed in the custody of Captain Antilles until A New Hope.
Unfortunately for Threepio his memory as to be erased. It is revealed in the novelization of Revenge of the Sith that part of this was because he was ready to tell Leia all about her parents as soon as he could .Threepio cannot keep a secret nor can he lie. He even says later in Return of the Jedi when the Ewoks perceive him as a deity and Han urges him to use his “divine influence” to get them out of their predicament that it goes against his programming to impersonate a deity.
As such, Bail Organa can’t have secrets being spilled by Threepio. Artoo on the other hand won’t talk, and if he does, he can’t be understood. Further, Threepio is just a droid, and erasing their memory is common practice. In the book Making of the Revenge of the Sith, while filming the scene where Senator Organa orders Threepio’s memory erased, actor Jimmy Smits asked Anthony Daniels if he should be more upset when giving the line, only for Daniels to reply,
“‘ No, I’m about as important to you as a trash can that needs emptying. You must think of me as a robot; I’m just an object. ‘ And that’s why it’s very cleverly written as a throwaway line.”
In the Star Wars Universe, Droids are machines, nothing more. Even the noble Obi-Wan Kenobi sees them as nothing more than tools. In the episode “Downfall of a Droid” from Star Wars: The Clone Wars, Artoo is missing and Anakin is bent on finding him. Kenobi informs him that Artoo is just an Astromech droid and they are a dime a dozen, something not that difficult to replace.
Anakin can’t fully reveal just how and why Artoo is so important to him. This droid is a friend to him, and someone who witnessed and recorded his wedding to Padmé. Moreover, he was a gift from his wife on the day he was made a Jedi Knight. Further, as he reveals to Kenobi, he never had the droids memory erased and that he contains some vital information key to the Clone Wars. While Anakin’s cover story is true, this allows him to go on a mission to find his droid.
This treatment of the droids is one of the things that set the Skywalker’s apart from other characters in the Star Wars universe. When most see them as tools, Anakin and Luke see them as friends. When Threepio is severely damaged in A New Hope following his fall of a cliff after the encounter with the Sand People, he urges Luke to leave him, but Luke refuses insisting on taking him with. Later before the battle of Yavin one of the mechanics is getting Luke’s X-Wing prepped for flight, notices how beaten up Artoo is, and asks him if he’d like a new one. Luke tells him,
“Not on your life. That little droid and I have been through a lot together. You all right back there, Artoo?”
The droids would accompany Luke and Leia on more adventures after Yavin. When Luke was missing on Hoth in The Empire Strikes Back both droids were very worried about him. Artoo refused to leave his post near the entrance of the base scanning as best he could admits the cruel weather conditions of the icy planet until they were ordered to close the door by the admiral. Threepio naturally stood by his side, reassuring him,
“You must come along now R2. There’s really nothing more we can do. And my joints are freezing up…Don’t say things like that! Of course we’ll see Master Luke again! And he’ll be quite all right, you’ll see! …Stupid little short-circuit! He’ll be *quite* all right.”
The droids would even try to comfort Leia when both Han and Luke were trapped outside, Threepio even trying to put a positive spin on Artoo’s dire predictions, telling her,
“Artoo says that the chances of survival are 725 to 1. Actually Artoo has been known to make mistakes… from time to time… Oh dear… ”
Later the droids were relieved to see their friend and master alive and well, and in Threepio’s words, fully functional. However with impending Imperial invasion they were forced to flee. Threepio would accompany Leia, like he did with Padmé before, on their escape from Hoth to Bespin. Threepio was out of sorts during the escape, telling then surrender was a perfectly legitimate option, and frightened by Han’s reckless behavior, even telling him as they approached the asteroid field to escape them imperials,
“Sir, the possibility of successfully navigating an asteroid field is approximately 3,720 to 1.”
Threepio is delighted to arrive at Bespin Cloud City with Han and Leia as it is the kind of environment he is best suited for. However his time there is interrupted when he stumbles on an enclave of storm troopers hiding, waiting to spring on his friends. Threepio is blown to bits before he can tell, only to be retrieved by Chewbacca and half repaired by the Wookie, albeit with his head on backwards.
Artoo on the other hand would accompany Luke to Dagobah, his only companion on the murky swampy world. Not only does he give him some much need company on the lonely world, Artoo, like he did for Luke’s mother and father, he keeps close watch over for him, staying close as he can to his master. He even fights Yoda for Luke’s lantern when the diminutive Jedi tries to take from Luke in his act, and it is possible he was in on it based on some of his rather playful sounding chirps. Then ,when Luke goes to rescue his friends, Artoo is separated from him as he encounters Vader, allowing Artoo to reunite with Leia and the others. Not only does Artoo finish repairing Threepio, he also makes emergency repairs to the Falcon’s hyper drive, allowing them to escape the Empires clutches in the nick of time.
Later, when Luke, Leia and Lando form a plan to rescue Han Solo from Jabba, the droids are sent to deliver a message form Luke to Jabba as well as a “gift”, of the droids. Artoo knows the full extent of Luke’s plan but Threepio is kept in the dark to make it more convincing. In many ways the droids are to operate as Luke’s Trojan Horse and get them inside the palace. Much like the people of Troy in the events of The Illiad, Jabba eagerly accepts the gift, resulting in his eventual doom as he inadvertently places them in strategic places for Luke’s rescue plan.
With Threepio translating for Jabba, they are able to understand exactly what the Hutt is saying to them , while Artoo carries a special surprise in his little dome. Artoo is sentenced to serve drinks on Jabba’s sail barge, he is in the right place to shoot Luke’s lightsaber to him in the battle over the Saralaac pit. Naturally Threepio is worried but Artoo has full confidence in Luke’s plan. Later when Jabba’s little “pet” salacious crumb is eating Threepio’s eye , Artoo saves Threepio in time as they leave the sail barge.
Artoo accompanies Luke to Dagobah, just as Yoda dies, even providing some comfort to his friend at the masters pacing. This means Artoo is present when Luke learns for certain that Vader is his father and Leia is his sister, a secret he has kept faithfully for decades. The droids as always accompany their friends to the forest moon of Endor where they soon make the acquaintance of the Ewoks after they are separated from Leia.
The Ewoks deify Threepio, and are ready to kill Luke, Han, Chewie, and Artoo, until Luke convinces Threepio to play the part and warns them Threepio will sues his magic and destroy them if they make him angry. Threepio is confused until Luke levitates the throne the droid sits in leaving him crying for help, until Luke brings him down and the Ewoks free them. That night, Threepio tells the Ewoks how and why they came to their village and not only gets their weapons returned and receive assistance from the Ewoks assistance, but leads the small band of rebels to being declared “part of the tribe.”
Much to the surprise of his friends, and Threepio’s delight, the Ewoks are the only race in Star Wars that honors Threepio, becoming willing to fight for him in the charge on the shield generator. Here, in one of the first call backs to Threepio and Artoo’s original roll as the narrators of the story, his skills as a translator are put to good use as he tells them the story of the Star Wars trilogy in their language.
It is also, one of the rare times Threepio plays a key role in the battle. While Artoo is shot by enemy fire and incapacitated in the ensuing melee, it’s Threepio’s diplomacy and langauge skills that gets them a much needed ally in the battle. Without the Ewoks the heroes would have never learned of a back entrance nor had a small army to “distract” the Imperials while they performed their mission .The Ewoks were ready to die for their world out of service to Threepio, and it was all because they were inspired by the story he told. It’s a strangely pivotal moment in the story and one that goes by unnoticed seen as just a cute moment in the movie.
However, it illustrates in many ways just why, for almost thirty years the Star Wars saga has become such a prevailing myth in our culture. As Neil Edwards notes in “Classic Moments: Camp Fire Stories” from Star Wars Insider #143.
“This is an unusual scene, that acts as a recap of the SW films themselves, for the benefit of an audience with in the film-in this case, the primitive Ewoks. Threepio’s summation of the rebels’ struggle acts like the epic poems and myths that ancient cultures used to entertain and educate, myths…The listening Ewoks are by turned intrigued, entertained, scared, and impressed, exactly the emotions someone experiencing a good story or movie should be feeling. But the story telling also has its effect on those who are familiar with those details-it makes Luke realize that he must share with Leia the fact that she’s his sister, and also that he must go confront Vader and try to redeem him. This scene is about the power of storytelling. Not only does storytelling win over what turn out to be invaluable allies to the rebel cause and reiterate Luke’s role in bring balance back to the force, but it’s also the very reason why we all fell in love with Star Wars ourselves…”
Like us watching the story, the droids exhibit many of the emotions we feel watching Star Wars. While they may not be the narrators, they are our window into this world. Threepio expresses many of our worries for our heroes, while Artoo fulfills our wish to charge right in alongside them and help win the day. Moreover, the droids save the galaxy just as much as their human friends, reminding us all that we all have a part to play in the grand scheme of things even if it may seem as inconsequential as being a navigator or a translator.
Darth Vader, Padmé, Luke Skywalker, Princess Leia, Han Solo, Chewbacca, Obi-Wan Kenobi, Yoda, Lando Calrissian, Mace Windu, Qui-Gon Jinn , Ahsoka Tano, Darth Maul, the Emperor, the two droids C-3P0 and R2-D2, and the whole endless litany of characters that make up the Star Wars mythos are merely one small part of one today’s modern day mythical sagas. They inspire us to be more noble and heroic, to resist the urge to give into our own dark side, and to have faith in something greater as we combat the demons we face. They remind us that we are not bound by the sins of our past, or our family’s past, and that there is always a chance for redemption. They assure us that that love can win, and that there is always hope, and to hold onto that hope.
Exactly what is in store as the saga moves on to not only the all new Star Wars Rebels TV series but a new sequel trilogy and spin-off films is hard to say. As Yoda once put it,
“Always in motion the future is.”
And that future is fast approaching. There is some concern among the fandom that it could end up being “ too much of a good thing”, but Star Wars was always envisioned as something that could go on. Whether it was books, action figures, movies, cartoons, or video games the universe would expand. Through these stories fans young and old not only get further adventures of their favorite characters, but get to make new friends with new characters like Ezra Bridger, Kanaan Jarrus, Sabine Wren, Hera Syndula, Chopper, and Zeb in Star Wars Rebels, the forthcoming new kids on the block, Rey, Finn, Poe Dammeron, Captain Phasma, Kylo Ren, and of course, the new little droid BB-8.
The new stories and characters help fulfill the vision that George Lucas had in regards to the franchise. As he admitted in the introduction to the Star Wars Legends novel Splinter of the Mind’s Eye,
“After Star Wars was released, it became apparent that m story, however man films it took to tell-was only one of thousands that could be told about the characters who inhabit the galaxy. But those were not stories that I was destined to tell. Instead they would spring from the imagination of other writers, inspired by the glimpse of a galaxy that Star Wars provided.”
However, one thing is for certain. Star Wars isn’t going away. Star Wars: Rebels is going strong, and there is at least seven new live-action slated to hit the silver screen. Rumors abound of a trilogy of films focusing on Obi-Wan Kenobi’s time in between the prequels and the original trilogy, Darth Vader TV specials, and a live action TV series. One way or another this story will continue to be a part of our culture. Mark Hamill summed it best in “Journey to Jedi” in Star Wars: Insider #143, when asked about the legacy of Star Wars,
“ It’s truly an amazing accomplishment for him to have created something that has endured and will continue to endure. It’s like L. Frank Baum with the Oz Books, JRR Tolkien with Lord of the Rings, and Gene Roddenberry with Star Trek. As long as people have imaginations and a desire to dream and want to enjoy entertainment that takes them out of their everyday lives, then Star Wars will never die.”
And this December we will get to indulge ourselves in the next chapter of this saga. I personally can’t wait to see it at least twice.
May the Force Be With you!
Ayckbourn, Alan. “Comic Potential: Q&A with Director Stephen Cole” Cornell Unversity Theater Department. Archived. Last Accessed Dec. 10, 2015.
Braezeal, Cynthia and Robert Naeye “Human-Robot Relationships” Pgs. 128,130. Star Wars: Where Science Meets the Imagination. Ed Rodly, Editor. National Geographic Society. Washington, DC.
TV SHOW: Coleman, Rob ( Dir.) “Downfall of a Droid” Star Wars: The Clone Wars. Starring: Matt Lanter, Ashley Eckstein, Matthew Wood, Ron Perlman, James Arnold Taylor, Dee Bradley Baker, and Tom Kane. George Krstic (writer). Original: Airdate Nov. 7, 2008. LucasAnimation/Warner Bros.
Daniels, Anthony “Introduction: See-Threepio and I.” pg. 17. Star Wars: Where Science Meets the Imagination. Ed Rodly, Editor. National Geographic Society. Washington, DC.
Edwards, Neil “Classic Moments: Camp Fire Stores” Star Wars Insider August/Sept. 2013. Issue 143.
Hamill, Mark and Jonathan Wilkins“Journey to Jedi” Star Wars Insider August/Sept. 2013. Issue 143.
FILM: Kershner, Irvin (Dir) Star Wars: Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back Starring Mark Hamill, Harrison Ford, Carrie Fisher, Billy Dee Williams, Anthony Daniels, Kenny Baker, Peter Mayhew, David Prowse, James Earl Jones, Sir Alec Guiness and Frank Oz. 1980. LucasFilm. LTD. Released by 20th Century Fox.
FILM: Lucas, George. (Dir) Star Wars: Episode I: The Phantom Menace. Starring Liam Neeson, Ewan McGregor, Natalie Portman, Jake Lloyd, Ian McDiaramid, Ray Park, Ahmed Best, Pernilla August, Anthony Daniels, Kenny Baker, Samuel L. Jackson and Frank Oz. 1999. LucasFilm. LTD. Released by 20th Century Fox.
FILM: Lucas, George. (Dir) Star Wars: Episode II: Attack of the Clones. Starring Ewan McGregor, Natalie Portman, Hayden Christensen, Ian McDiaramid, Christopher Lee, Anthony Daniels, Kenny Baker, Samuel L. Jackson and Frank Oz. 2002. LucasFilm. LTD. Released by 20th Century Fox.
FILM: Lucas, George. (Dir) Star Wars: Episode III: Revenge of the Sith. Starring Ewan McGregor, Natalie Portman, Hayden Christensen, Ian McDiaramid, Christopher Lee, Anthony Daniels, Kenny Baker, Samuel L. Jackson, Jimmy Smits, and Frank Oz. 2005. LucasFilm. LTD. Released by 20th Century Fox.
FILM: Lucas, George. (Dir) Star Wars: Episode IV: A New Hope. Starring Mark Hamill, Harrison Ford, Carrie Fisher, Peter Cushing, Alec Guiness, Anthony Daniels, Kenny Baker, Peter Mayhew, David Prowse and James Earl Jones. 1977. LucasFilm. LTD. Released by 20th Century Fox.
FILM: Marquand, Richard ( Dir) Star Wars: Episode VI: Return of the Jedi. Starring Mark Hamill, Harrison Ford, Carrie Fisher, Billy Dee Williams, Anthony Daniels, Kenny Baker, Peter Mayhew, David Prowse, James Earl Jones, Alec Guiness, Ian McDiaramid and Frank Oz. 1983. LucasFilm. LTD. Released by 20th Century Fox.
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TV SHOW Stephenson,Ken ( dir.) “The White Witch” Star Wars: Droids Starring: Anthony Daniels, Ben Burtt, Graeme Campbell,Rob Cowan, Lesleh Donaldson, Don Francks, Peter MacNeill, Winston Rekert, Andrew Sabiston, and John Stocker. Peter Saunder ( Writer) Sept. 7. 1985 ( Original Airdate) Nelvana Limited.
TV SERIES: Tartakovsky, Genndy ( Dir). “Chapter 21” Star Wars: Clone Wars. Voice Cast: Mat Lucas, James Arnold Taylor, TC Carson, Tom Kane, Grey DeLise, Anthony Daniels, Daran Norris, Richard McGonagal, and Fred Tatascorie. Original Airdate. April 2nd, 2004. LucasFilm, LTD.
Thompson, Clive “Why Do We Love R2-D2 and not C-3P0”Smithsonian Magazine. May 2014. Archived on smithsonianmag.com. Last Accessed December 8th 2015.