In the great heroic myths, shortly after the hero receives his call to action, he meets his mentor who helps shape his destiny. This is the case for Luke Skywalker as well. As he listens to the recording stashed inside R2-D2, Luke muses to himself if this person is any relation to Old Ben Kenobi, a strange old hermit who lived beyond the Dune Sea. When he brought this subject up to his uncle, Luke was told that Obi-Wan died about the same time as Luke’s father and told him to clear Artoo’s memory and forget the whole thing.
It probably would have been the end of it, had Artoo not run off that night. The following morning, Luke and Threepio went to find him only to wind up in trouble. Indigenous scavengers called Tusken Raiders or “Sand People” attacked him and nearly killed him, had they not been frightened by a strange noise. Over the hill came an old man wearing a cloak. The old man revived Luke and invited Artoo to come out of hiding, telling him, not to worry and that Luke would be fine.
As Luke comes to the boy greats the older man, glad to see him, and tells him how he came out there. Upon the mention of Obi-Wan Ben is stunned as if he saw a ghost, to which Luke asks if he knew him. Ben tells him,
“Obi-Wan Kenobi. Obi-Wan… Now, that’s a name I’ve not heard in a long time. A long time….Oh, he’s not dead… Not yet….But of course I know him. He’s me…I haven’t gone by the name of Obi-Wan since… oh, before you were born.”
Taking Luke and his robot friends back to his place to rest and recover, Obi-Wan plays the entirety of the message, tells Luke about the days of the Jedi, and even reveals that Luke’s own father had been a Jedi, all before bestowing upon him his talisman, his father’s lightsaber. This is his way of inducting Luke, before urging him to come with him to help the princess. Obi-Wan knew, as all great mentors know that his day is long past and it is time for the new generation to rise up to face evil. Luke is part of that new generation. Like Gandalf the Grey with Bilbo and Frodo Baggins, Elrond with Aragorn, Merlin with King Arthur, and the biblical prophet Samuel with King David, it’s Obi-Wan’s task to guide Luke to his destiny.
Obi-Wan also fulfill a very real emptiness in Luke’s life. With his father gone, and his uncle skirting around the issue of who Anakin had been, someone else had to take to provide Luke with emotional and spiritual guidance he needs to help overthrow the Empire and restore peace and justice to the galaxy, and perhaps bring balance back to The Force. As Tom Henthorne notes in the essay “ Boys to men: Masculinity in Star Wars and E.T. The Extra-Terrestrial” from the book, The Medieval Hero on Film, notes,
“Just as King Arthur discovers his identity only after pulling a sword from a stone, Skywalker only learns of his own past only after Obi-Wan Kenobi presents him with his father’s lightsaber….Since his own father is unavailable, Skywalker turns to surrogates, namely Kenobi…who becomes Skywalker’s spiritual advisor, teaching him the faith, reverence, and selflessness that a Jedi needs.”
To this end, Kenobi, a hero and former guardian of peace and justice in a more utopian ear of the galaxy, fills the role of Luke’s “supernatural aid”. As Joseph Campbell described in The Hero with a Thousand Faces,
“The first encounter of the hero-journey is with a protective figure …What such a figure represents is the benign, protecting power of destiny. The fantasy is a reassurance-a promise that the peace of Paradise, which was known first within the mother womb, is not to be lost; that it supports the present and stands in the future as well as in the past…Not infrequently, the supernatural helper is masculine in form. In Fairy lore it may be some little fellow of the wood, some wizard, hermit, shepherd, or smith, who appears to supply the amulets and advice that the hero will require…”
However, as helpful and important as this encounter is for Luke, it is equally important for Obi-Wan as well. As is the case for all great mentor student relations in film and television, be it Mickey and Rocky in the Rocky films, Mr. Miyagi and Daniel in the Karate Kid, or Bruce Wayne and Terry McGinnis in the TV series Batman Beyond, the encounter with this young hero awakens something that is long dormant inside this old hero. When Obi-Wan first asks Luke to come with him to Alderaan, he even tells him the classic retired hero’s lament of being too old for that sort of thing. In fact by the time of the original Star Wars movie, Obi-Wan had been in hiding for roughly 19 years on a back woods planet. Now, he’s getting back into the action.
In spite of his age, Obi-Wan still is as skilled and powerful as ever. When stopping in Mos Eisley Cantina to secure passage to Alderaan, Luke is nearly assaulted by a dangerous criminal. Obi-Wan first try to defuse the situation peacefully, but when it turns violent, he whips out his saber and disarms both crooks effortlessly. As George Lucas noted in the book The Making of Star Wars,
“When this cranky old man pulls out his laser sword and cuts three guys down in a second — that’s when you realize the old man is a master. This guy is more than you think he is.”
Yet, long before all of this, he was no different from Luke in many respects, a young idealistic and overeager Jedi Padawan, Obi-Wan had been apprenticed to the Jedi master Qui-Gon Jinn. Sent by the Jedi Council to help end a trade blockade over Naboo, Obi-Wan was key to rescuing Queen Amidala from the Trade Federation. When the ship was damaged, Obi-Wan was tasked to stay with the queen’s ship and protect the rest of her party while Qui-Gon, Padmé, R2, and Jar-Jar went to find parts for the ship. Because of this excursion, Obi-Wan’s destiny would collide with that of the young boy, Anakin Skywalker.
Kenobi worried that the boy would only be a pathetic, useless life-form like the Gungan Jar-Jar Binks. He would discover that his master believed that Anakin was the Chosen One, said to bring balance to the Force, something he sharply disagreed with. As his willingness to take Anakin on as a Padawan, Obi-Wan, like a jealous older brother, feared Qui-Gon was just trying to broom him away to focus on someone else. However his fears were revealed when Qui-Gon expressed belief that Obi-Wan was ready to face the trails. Qui-Gon said of Obi-Wan,
“He is headstrong…and he has to learn about the living Force, but he is capable. There is little more he can learn from me.”
Later, Obi-Wan would apologize to Qui-Gon for disagreeing with him, thanking his master for believing he was ready. The two of them, along with Anakin were sent back to Naboo to help Padmé end the Trade Federations blockade. While Padmé and her soldiers took back the palace and Anakin took down a control ship, Obi-Wan and Qui-Gon battled a Sith Lord known as Darth Maul. Separated by an energy field, Obi-Wan watched in horror as his master was struck down by the Sith Lord, Darth Maul. Once the field lowered, Obi-Wan flew into a rage and with one swipe of his blade cut the Sith Lord in half right across the waste line.
As Darth Maul fell down a shaft, Obi-Wan hurried to Qui-Gon only to learn it was too late. As Qui-Gon died, Obi-Wan agreed to train Anakin as a Jedi, even if it went against the Council’s wishes. Yoda conferred on Obi-Wan the rank of Jedi Knight, but did not agree with him training Obi-Wan. Knowing that Obi-Wan was just as defiant as his master, Yoda reluctantly agreed to allow him to train Anakin. Further, Obi-Wan couldn’t help but notice some of the same Jedi potential in Anakin that Qui-Gon saw.
In the Star Wars Episode I Adventures: Obi-Wan Kenobi one shot, we see his summary and statement to Yoda regarding Anakin’s potential, and his willingness to train him as he tells the diminutive Jedi master,
“I will train Anakin. Though I seek guidance from The Force. Is he as dangerous as the council fears? Can he be the chosen one ? Does he have the traits of a Jedi?…Qui-Gon knew Anakin’s strength with the Force is such that it cannot be ignored. Truly this is the sign of a Jedi to be. Qui-Gon knew it was his destiny, as I realize it now. Anakin is to become a Jedi.”
Ten years later, during the events of Attack of the Clones, Obi-Wan continually tried to fulfill his promise and impart wisdom to his younger and increasingly impatient student, ranging from lectures on as diverse topics as politics, not giving into his feelings, and not losing his lightsaber. The constant lectures frustrated them both to the point Obi-Wan blithely stated that he felt Anakin would be the death of him.
When they were called in to protect Senator Padmé, who had become a target or assassins, Obi-Wan was more than aware of Anakin’s feelings for her, as well as his blind trust in politicians telling him,
“Mind your thoughts, Anakin, they betray you. You’ve made a commitment to the Jedi order… a commitment not easily broken…”
It made him all the more apprehensive when the events they faced soon sent them in seperate directions and Anakin became her sole protector while Obi-Wan conducted his own investigation into Padmé’s assassin. He even told Yoda and Mace Windu,
“Master, he should not have been given this assignment. I’m afraid Anakin won’t be able to protect the Senator. He has a… an emotional connection with her. It’s been there since he was boy. Now he’s confused… distracted.”
Urged by Obi-Wan and Mace to have some faith in Anakin, Obi-Wan continued on his own assignment, tracking down the man hired to assassinate Padmé. Obi-Wan’s pursuit led him discovering the creation of a Clone Army and learning that the Seperatists were in league with the Sith. Further, from one such Sith, a former Jedi named Count Dooku, he learned that the Sith had even managed to infiltrate the Senate. Given the opportunity to turn to the dark side, Obi-Wan refused, and Count Dooku sentenced him to die alongside Anakin and Padmé. If not for their own efforts and the intervention of the Jedi, they probably would have met their end.
However, in the process the Clone Wars had begun. Despite Anakin’s impertinence, Obi-Wan had so much faith in Anakin that he was still willing to suggest to the council that Anakin be made a knight as their ranks continued to dwindle. The rest of the council wasn’t convinced, pointing out that not only was Palpatine suggesting this sort of things for months, and that Anakin was reckless with his gifts. Obi- Wan was adamant, saying very eloquently in chapter 21 of the Star Wars: Clone Wars Micro series,
“Sometimes in the past. But regardless, Anakin has been through far more difficult things than the trials. Surely he passed his trial of skill, when he defeated that dark assassin on the fourth moon of Yavin. And he endured an atrocious trial of the flesh at the hands of Count Dooku. And he has continued to pass every test of courage this war has dealt him.”
The Council agreed and it was Obi-Wan’s solemn duty to inform Anakin, telling him that he was proud of him and the man he had become, and it was now time to leave their role as mentor and student and become brothers. Anakin was knighted and despite no longer being his Padawan, Anakin and Obi-Wan were all but inseparable during the Clone Wars, barring secret missions, one of them being captured, or shore leave.
Despite this, Anakin often had a hard time confiding in Obi-Wan about many of his struggles with attachment feeling he wouldn’t understand. One area in particular was the dismissal of Anakin’s former Padawan, Ahsoka Tano. Anakin was devastated when Ahsoka chose to leave the Jedi Order after being invited back in after being cleared of baseless accusations. Anakin had felt the Jedi hung her out to dry and had a harder time trusting any of them, even Obi-Wan.
However, Anakin had learned fairly early in the war that attachments were something Kenobni understood far too well. As the young Jedi discovered when they were assigned to protect the Duchess Satine of Mandalore from assassins, Kenobi had a history with the Duchess. As he told his former apprentice in the episode “Voyage of Temptation”, from season two of Star Wars: The Clone Wars,
“Master Qui-Gon and I spent a year on Mandalore, protecting the duchess from insurgents who had threatened her world…They sent bounty hunters after us. We were always on the run, living hand-to-mouth, -never sure what the next day would bring…When she returned, she took rebuilding her world alone… My duty as a Jedi demanded I be elsewhere… I live by the Jedi code…As master Yoda says: “A Jedi must not form attachments”…But he usually leaves out the undercurrent of remorse.”
As Kenobi knew a thing or two about regrets and letting go of someone close to him, he urged Anakin to open u. While on a mission to the Outer Rim world of Utapau in the Clone Wars: Legacy Story-real “Crystal Crisis on Utapau”, Anakin blurted how he wanted to contact Ahsoka for back-up, only to catch himself. Obi-Wan did not scorn him, but rather, knowing how troubled he was, and that Anakin had not dealt with her departure, urged him to open up, telling him,
“Anakin, do you want to talk about it?…, dwelling on Ahsoka’s decision won’t bring her back… It was a surprise decision to all of us…She made the decision, Anakin…I will grant you mistakes were made, but she chose to leave. Part of the Jedi way is not letting emotion cloud your better judgment. And that’s precisely what Ahsoka did, even in her most critical moment…You can’t take responsibility for Ahsoka’s decision, Anakin.”
It would take a full day but Anakin would reveal snippets to Obi-Wan not giving his old friend the full truth of his struggles with his role as a Jedi and his secret marriage to Padmé. Anakin asked him,
“How would you feel if I turned into a major disappointment?…It’s precisely the same: you took me under your wing and practically raised me. I’m your Padawan, just like Ahsoka was mine. How well would you sleep knowing that I failed you?”
Obi-Wan admitted he would not be able to sleep very well if something of that nature happened, but optimistically told Anakin he did not believe that would ever happen. However, it would not take long for those fears to be realized. Palpatine had been slowly manipulating things from the background, culminating in the battle of Coruscant and staging his own abduction. Returning from the Outer Rim sieges, he and Anakin engaged in a daring rescue operation to save Palpatine from the Seperatists.
Here, we see Anakin and Obi-Wan in a sort of mutual appreciation society. Anakin wanted Obi-Wan to receive the credit for the rescue, and even said he wouldn’t have been as great a Jedi without his training, Obi-Wan pointed out in Revenge of the Sith after the mission is complete and they are safely back on Coruscant,
“Sorry, old friend. Let us not forget that you rescued me from the Buzz Droids. And you killed Count Dooku. And you rescued the Chancellor, carrying me unconscious on your back, and you managed to land that bucket of bolts safely . . . Anakin, let’s be fair. Today, you are the hero and you deserve your glorious day with the politicians.”
Following Skywalker and Kenobi’s return, despite their better judgment, the Jedi Council agreed to give Anakin on the council, under the advisement of Palpatine. It was after the council meeting had dismissed that Obi-Wan had to give Anakin a difficult assignment, and revealed why they were willing to follow Palpatine’s advice: they wanted Anakin to spy on the Chancellor. Anakin was reluctant and even got in a heated argument with Obi-Wan over the assignment, as Palaptine had long been a good friend and ally and the very thought of spying on him was bordering on treason. Obi-Wan pleaded with Anakin to trust him, reminding him he was on his side.
Despite this tension, when Obi-Wan was sent to take down General Grievous once and for all, he and Anakin still left on good terms. It would be the last time they would see each other as friends. Obi-Wan traveled to the planet of Utapau and managed to finally take Grievous down. However no sooner had he defeated he villain, then Order 66 was executed by Palpatine. The Clone Troopers fired upon Obi-Wan as he and the dragon-like creature he was riding on as the scaled up a mountain nearly fell to his death.
Miraculously, Obi-Wan and Yoda survived and were rescued by Bail Organa. Returning to Coruscant the two Jedi made a disturbing discovery. He temple had been set ablaze and all the Jedi inside had been killed. Recalibrating the beacon with an urgent message to the other surviving Jedi, hoping he would give them all a fighting chance to survive.
Upon finishing he and Yoda surveyed the tapes were the learned who slaughtered the Jedi. Obi-Wan was heartbroken as he watched Anakin kill the Jedi, including the younglings, and that Palpatine had been the Sith Lord they sought. He begged Yoda to let him face Palpatine, not wanting to kill his friend and brother.
However, Yoda knew Obi-Wan wasn’t strong or powerful enough to face Palpatine alone and reminded him he had to do his duty. Heading to Padmé he asked for information on where Anakin had gone, and revealed to her the truth, that Anakin had turned to the Dark side and killed Jedi, telling her as he fought back his own tears,
“He was deceived by a lie. We all were. It appears that the Chancellor is behind everything, including the war. Palpatine is the Sith Lord we’ve been looking for. After the death of Count Dooku, Anakin became his new apprentice.”
Obi-Wan could tell that she was trying to cover for Anakin and deduced that she was pregnant and that Anakin was the father. Realizing she would not tell him anything, Obi-Wan stowed away in her ship as she traveled to Mustafar to meet Anakin. As Obi-Wan emerged Anakin, now Darth Vader, flew into a rage, insisting that if Obi-Wan wasn’t with him in his new Empire then he must be his enemy and that he would kill him. Despite his best efforts to reason with him, the two old friends engaged in a climactic duel over the hellish world of Mustafar.
Obi-Wan finally got the higher ground and when Anakin made a fatal move, Obi-Wan reluctantly chopped of Anakin’s remaining arm and legs with a lightsaber. As his former apprentice lay there, Obi-Wan yelled,
“You were the Chosen One! It was said that you would, destroy the Sith, not join them. It was you who would bring balance to the Force, not leave it in Darkness…you were my brother! I loved you!”
Obi-Wan picked up Anakin’s old lightsaber, turning away, unable to watch as his old friend was burnt by the flames. Resolving to leave Anakin to the Will of the Force, Obi-Wan hurried back to the ship to check on Padmé. She was failing fast and he had to get her help. Obi-Wan was by her side as she gave birth to her children and watch as she would die. Later at a meeting with Yoda and Bail, Obi-Wan resolved to take the boy, Luke, to Tatooine to live with Anakin’s half-brother Owen.
In the meantime, he himself would live in exile on Tatooine acting as Luke’s guardian angel. In guiding Luke on his destiny to become a Jedi, Obi-Wan’s path would cross with Darth Vader once again. In fact Vader had no concern about the Falcon or the intruders. He had sensed a tremor in the Force, one he hadn’t felt since he was last in presence of his Obi-Wan Kenobi.
In an effort to distract his former apprentice from Luke and his friends, Obi-Wan fought against Vader. His former apprentice told him,
“I’ve been waiting for you, Obi-Wan. We meet again, at last. The circle is now complete. When I left you, I was but the learner; now *I* am the master.”
Obi-Wan rebuked him, reminding him he was only a master of evil. Back and forth they spared, verbally and with their swords, Vader chiding Obi-Wan for his age, saying he was weak. However, the older Jedi master responded to his taunt,
“You can’t win Darth. If you shall strike me down I shall become more powerful then you can possibly imagine.”
Then at a key moment, right when Vader would have seen Luke, Obi-Wan raised his saber, calmed his mind like Qui-Gon before and surrendered himself to The Force as Vader’s saber slashed through his robes, falling to the ground empty. An angered Luke tried to avenge his master but Han and Leia urged him to run. It was only the voice of Obi-Wan that finally got him to run.
Luke heard his voice again as he piloted his X-Wing over the Death Star, urging him to trust in the force. Later, he would appear to him as a ghost at critical moments, giving him advice, comfort, and even urging him to go to Dagobah to learn from Yoda in order for Luke to complete his training. Obi-Wan’s role at this point is like that of Mentor in the Odyssey with Telemechus. In Homer’s epic the goddess Athena disguised herself as Mentor, a tutor of both Odysseus and Telemechus, with the purpose of guiding Telemechus on his journey to man hood and eventual reconciliation with his father. The book Star Wars: The Power of Myth compares this to Merlin, saying,
“In most myths, the hero loses his wise guide before completing his quest, forcing him to develop his own abilities. In Arthurian legend, the Magician Merlin tells Arthur of his destiny to unite the kingdom, and uses his magic and wisdom to help the young king .Then Merlin vanishes, but invisibly continues to counsel Arthur in times of Peril…Although no longer a physical presence, the Jedi Master like Merlin, watches over Luke appearing at crucial times.”
Despite all this, Obi-Wan has received a bad rap among fans for one huge indiscretion: not telling Luke out right about his father and lying to him in telling him Vader had betrayed and murdered Anakin. However, Obi-Wan knew that all his life Luke had been told his father was nothing more than a navigator on a space freighter and now he was discovering his father was this great warrior. There was no way Obi-Wan could tell the boy that his dad became the Hitler of the galaxy. Rather then lie to him, he gave him a myth, a story to explain just who Anakin had been before his fall, so Luke would have that ideal to live up to, and not live with the burden of the nightmare.
Luke would later save is father by that same myth of who his father had been. While he might have failed with Anakin, Obi-Wan was still able to save the galaxy and insure that the Jedi would continue through Luke. Obi-Wan himself meditates on this during the events of the Star Wars: Legends novel Kenobi. Set in the wilds of Tatooine, the book sees the once esteemed Jedi Master , now something more akin to Clint Eastwood’s “Man with no Name”, an outlaw still bound by his moral code and is dedicated to still fighting for justice. Further Kenobi like the Man with no name goes by an alias: Ben.
One of the locals he helps wonders if he is seeking redemption for his mistakes of the past, deeds he will never disclose. But Kenobi knows differently, while he may not be able to flash his lightsaber around or use his Force powers in a subtle manner, he is still a Jedi with one last mission.
“…Another chance to get it right. I understand. I am not here to find redemption…I’m not even here to atone…I know I’m here for only one reason…To protect Luke Skywalker. And to be ready when he- and Bail Organa, or whoever supports hope in the Galaxy-needs me.”
In doing so, he helped fulfill his own message of hope to the few remaining Jedi that he had encoded in the Homing Beacon, which was fully replayed in the animated movie Star Wars Rebels : Spark of the Rebellion,
“This is master Obi-Wan Kenobi. I regret to report that both our Jedi Order and the Republic have fallen, with the dark shadow of the Empire rising to take their place. This message is a reminder and a warning for any surviving Jedi. Trust in the Force. Do not return to the temple, that time has passed, and our future is uncertain. We will each be challenged. Our trust. Our faith. Our friendships. But we must perceiver, and in time a new hope will emerge. May the Force be with you, Always.”
Campbell, Joseph The Hero With a Thousand Faces. Pg. 69, 71-72.1973. Princeton Univeristy Press. Princeton, NJ.
Story-Reel: Filoni, Dave ( Dir) “Crystal Crisis on Utapau” Star Wars: The Clone Wars Legacy. Voice Cast: James Arnold Taylor, Matt Lanter, James Hong, Corey Burton, Matthew Wood, Tom Kane, and Ben Diskin. Daniel Arkin ( writer). Original Airdate Sep. 26. 2014.
Gilroy, Henry, and Martin Egeland. Star Wars Episode 1-Obi-Wan Kenobi. 1999. Dark Horse Comics.
Henthrone, Paul “Boys to men: Masculinity in Star Wars and E.T. The Extra-Terrestrial” pg. 78-79.The Medieval Hero on Screen: Representations from Beowulf to Buffy.2004. McFarland and Company, Inc, Publishers. Jefferson, NC.
John, David, Stefan Morris, Cathy Tincknell, and Joanna Devereux( eds.) Star Wars: The Power of Myth. Pg. 13. 1999. LucasBooks/DK Publishing. New York, NY
FILM: Lee, Steward, Steven S. Lee, and Dave FIloni ( Dir.)Star Wars: Rebels: Spark of Rebellion. Starring Taylor Gray, Vanessa Marshall, Freddie Prinze, Jr., Tiya Sicar, Steve Blum, David Oyelowo, James Arnold Taylor, and Jason Isaacs. Simon Kinberg ( writer) 2014.LucasFilm/Walt Disney Studios.
FILM: Kershner, Irvin (Dir) Star Wars: Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back Starring Mark Hamill, Harrison Ford, Carrie Fisher, Billy Dee Williams, Anthony Daniels, Kenny Baker, Peter Mayhew, David Prowse, James Earl Jones, Sir Alec Guiness and Frank Oz. 1980. LucasFilm. LTD. Released by 20th Century Fox.
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FILM: Lucas, George. (Dir) Star Wars: Episode II: Attack of the Clones. Starring Ewan McGregor, Natalie Portman, Hayden Christensen, Ian McDiaramid, Christopher Lee, Anthony Daniels, Kenny Baker, Samuel L. Jackson and Frank Oz. 2002. LucasFilm. LTD. Released by 20th Century Fox.
FILM: Lucas, George. (Dir) Star Wars: Episode III: Revenge of the Sith. Starring Ewan McGregor, Natalie Portman, Hayden Christensen, Ian McDiaramid, Christopher Lee, Anthony Daniels, Kenny Baker, Samuel L. Jackson, Jimmy Smits, and Frank Oz. 2005. LucasFilm. LTD. Released by 20th Century Fox.
FILM: Lucas, George. (Dir) Star Wars: Episode IV: A New Hope. Starring Mark Hamill, Harrison Ford, Carrie Fisher, Peter Cushing, Alec Guiness, Anthony Daniels, Kenny Baker, Peter Mayhew, David Prowse and James Earl Jones. 1977. LucasFilm. LTD. Released by 20th Century Fox.
FILM: Marquand, Richard ( Dir) Star Wars: Episode VI: Return of the Jedi. Starring Mark Hamill, Harrison Ford, Carrie Fisher, Billy Dee Williams, Anthony Daniels, Kenny Baker, Peter Mayhew, David Prowse, James Earl Jones, Alec Guiness, Ian McDiaramid and Frank Oz. 1983. LucasFilm. LTD. Released by 20th Century Fox.
Miller, John Jackson. Star Wars Legends: Kenobi.pg. 307. 2013. Del Ray. New York, NY.
TV Series: O’Connell, Brian Kalin. “Voyage of Temptation” Star Wars: The Clone Wars. Starring James Arnold Taylor, Matt Lanter, Anna Graves, Greg Proops, Phil LaMarr, Dee Bradley Baker, Jon Favreau, Tom Kane, Corey Burton, David Acord and Ian Abercrombie. Paul Dini and Henry Gilroy (writers.) Original Airdate: February 5, 2010.
Rinzler, JW. The Making of Star Wars pg. 107. . 2007 Random House Publishers.New York, NY
TV SERIES: Tartakovsky, Genndy ( Dir). “Chapter 21” Star Wars: Clone Wars. Voice Cast: Mat Lucas, James Arnold Taylor, TC Carson, Tom Kane, Grey DeLise, Anthony Daniels, Daran Norris, Richard McGonagal, and Fred Tatascorie. Original Airdate. April 2nd, 2004. LucasFilm, LTD.
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2005 LucasFilm/20th Century Fox, 1983 LucasFilm/20th Century Fox.